Tuesday, December 22, 2015



                                     ENGLISH - WINDOW TO THE WORLD

 Language sets homo sapiens apart from all other animals. A language both reflects and affects a culture's way of thinking, and changes in a culture influence the development of its language. No other organism on this  planet has this ability . And in  the present  world the most used language is of course, English.   Today there are about 6,000 languages in the world, and half of the world's population speaks only 10 of them. English is the single most dominant of these 10. British colonialism initiated the spread of English across the globe; it has been spoken nearly everywhere and has become even more prevalent since World War II, with the global reach of American power."How many people in the world today speak English?

First-language speakers: 375 million

Second-language speakers: 375 million

Foreign-language speakers: 750 million

(David Graddol, The Future of English? British Council, 1997)


English  an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the US and most of the Commonwealth countries .It was the West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. it is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations; and it is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organisations. "English has official or special status in at least 75 countries with a combined population of two billion people. It is estimated that one out of four people worldwide speak English with some degree of competence."(Tony Reilly, "English Changes Lives." The Sunday Times [UK], November 11, 2012)



 
Part of Beowulf, a poem written in Old English.








An example of Middle English by Chaucer.




Hamlet's famous "To be, or not to be" lines, written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare.

 



A brief chronology of English
55 BC
Roman invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar.
Local inhabitants speak Celtish
AD 43
Roman invasion and occupation. Beginning of Roman rule of Britain.
436
Roman withdrawal from Britain complete.
449
Settlement of Britain by Germanic invaders begins
450-480
Earliest known Old English inscriptions.
Old English
1066
William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invades and conquers England.
c1150
Earliest surviving manuscripts in Middle English.
Middle English
1348
English replaces Latin as the language of instruction in most schools.
1362
English replaces French as the language of law. English is used in Parliament for the first time.
c1388
Chaucer starts writing The Canterbury Tales.
c1400
The Great Vowel Shift begins.
1476
William Caxton establishes the first English printing press.
Early Modern English
1564
Shakespeare is born.
1604
Table Alphabeticall, the first English dictionary, is published.
1607
The first permanent English settlement in the New World (Jamestown) is established.
1616
Shakespeare dies.
1623
Shakespeare's First Folio is published
1702
The first daily English-language newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in London.
1755
Samuel Johnson publishes his English dictionary.
1776
Thomas Jefferson writes the American Declaration of Independence.
1782
Britain abandons its colonies in what is later to become the USA.
1828
Webster publishes his American English dictionary.
Late Modern English
1922
The British Broadcasting Corporation is founded.
1928
The Oxford English Dictionary is published.



The English language has borrowed words from all global languages to supplement its vast vocabulary. It has spread to  every nook and corner of the world making earth a ‘global village’. The vocabulary of English is undoubtedly very large. The current FAQ for the OED further  states: How many words are there in the English language? There is no single sensible answer to this question. It's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (OED2) includes over 600,000 definitions, following a rather inclusive policy . However , The editors of Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged include 475,000 main headwords, but in their preface they estimate the true number to be much higher .

Globalization  necessitates the learning of a language which is international. In the case of English in India, more than two centuries, India has been directly and indirectly had influence of the English language on all the fields. Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca, is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation, entertainment, radio, and diplomacy. Moreover there is no single language to unite the whole country where there are many languages ,cultures and religions . One  linguistic community is reluctant to learn one common Indian language ,we have to borrow a new non-Indian language which is undoubtedly English. It is the  link language of communication between the states and the  centre, inter-state commerce and communication besides international trade and  commerce. India has reversed its former campaign against the language of its colonial rulers. The rush for admissions to English medium schools is a testimony to our recognition to English for upward mobility.  Since 2005, India has had the world’s largest English-speaking population, with far many more people using the language than before independence.  It has definitely played a part in the integration of various cultures and languages, people and art forms across the world.

 English means prosperity to the downtrodden and backward classes who see a ray of hope to raise themselves from the demeaning  poverty  , negligence and age old discrimination.  It helps them to communicate and  survive against the odds. English is the window which shows them  the world. We must make the best use of English to prosper   culturally and materially so that we can compete with the developed  world .

Poets and authors have contributed to this  language immensely .It is through this medium that Shakespeare ,Milton and Bernard Shaw   expressed their dreams and hopes, joys and sorrows,  rhymes and rhythms with greatest ease. Many Indians have become so skilled in English language and have won many international awards for creative and comparative literatures during the last few years.  Contemporary writers like Arundhati Roy, Salman Rushdi, Kiran Desai,R. K Narayan  etc. have evolved themselves  in this linguistic milieu . To all of them, English is a window to the vast, wide world of fame and appreciation. Swami Vivekananda established the greatness of Indian view of religion at the world conference of religions in Chicago in 1893. He addressed the gathering in impressive English. We can make use of English to promote our worldview and spiritual heritage throughout the globe.

Now this language is the blue-eyed boy  of all nations and all people. The elites of Egypt, Syria and Lebanon have dumped French in favour of English. And China is about to launch a colossal programme to tackle one of the few remaining obstacles to its breakneck economic expansion: a paucity of English speakers.

Generally, standard English today does not depend on accent but rather on shared educational experience, mainly of the printed language. Considering the above facts, learning English, the universal language, as a Second Language, becomes inevitable in Indian education system. English is unavoidable to a student,  prerequisite for a  job seeker, inescapable to a middle aged man  while taming   the boredom  of recollecting his past .

.  He finds solace in keeping in touch with his dear and near ones through the most vibrant channel   of the present world - the internet of which  the most common  language  is English.